149. The Shadows – Foot Tapper (1963)

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The movie Summer Holiday had been out for months, but its popularity was still very high in March 1963, leading to an unusual chart occurrence. For the second time in three months, Cliff Richard found himself knocked from the top of the charts by his backing band, the Shadows. Summer Holiday had been at number 1 for a fortnight, but Foot Tapper replaced it for a week, only to be overtaken by the film’s title track once more.

Foot Tapper was also from the film’s soundtrack, and Bruce Welch had co-written both. The Shadows final number 1 was also written by its most famous member, bespectacled guitarist Hank Marvin. It’s another uptempo piece of incidental music, in a similar vein to their previous bestseller, Dance On!.

It’s a bit better than Dance On!, but only a bit. Once more, you can imagine it working as incidental music for a film score, after all, that’s what it was. But Foot Tapper jangles along for just over two minutes and leaves little impression – it lives up to its name and that’s it. The best bit is the drum work from Brian Bennett, but compare it to Jet Harris and Tony Meehan’s Diamonds and Foot Tapper just doesn’t stand up. The Shadows had been an inspiration to many aspiring musicians, many of which would ultimately outdo and replace them, but their own well was starting to look very dry, and after backing Cliff Richard on seven number 1s, and achieving five in their own right, the group never topped the charts again.

Bassist Brian Locking left the group that October to concentrate on being a Jehovah’s Witness and was replaced with John Rostill. The hits began to dry up as Beatlemania conquered all in its path, and they starred alongside Cliff in another film, Finders Keepers. This 1966 movie features the bizarre premise of the boys arriving in a Spanish town to perform, only to find that the locals have fled in panic because a small bomb has landed nearby. So Cliff and the Shadows decide to find the bomb and get things back to normal. What a lovely set of lads. The Rolling Stones wouldn’t have done that, would they?

The 1970s began with the group featuring as regular guests on Cliff’s variety show for the BBC, It’s Cliff Richard!. Rostill left the group and sadly committed suicide in 1973, prompting yet another line-up change, and it wouldn’t be the last. The group took part in the 1975 Eurovision Song Contest, coming in second place with Let Me Be the One. Onetime guitarist John Farrar, who came and went in the mid-70s, went on to write You’re the One That I Want for John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John, one of the biggest-selling number 1s of all-time. The 80s saw keyboard thrown into the mix but like so many bands from their era, an attempt at sounding contemporary just made them look more old-fashioned. The band reunited with Cliff for live shows several times, and Hank Marvin helped on his collaboration with the Young Ones on a remake of their first number 1, Living Doll in 1986, which was the first Comic Relief single. The band’s most famous rhythm section, Jet Harris and Tony Meehan, joined them on stage in 1989 for a special performance of Move It at Cliff’s The Event show. In 2004 they announced a farewell tour, and each of the band’s line-up at the time received an OBE, but Hank Marvin gave it back (fair play). Despite the tour, they have continued to perform and record, with Singing the Blues, their last collaboration with Cliff, reaching the top 40 in 2009.

It may be easy to sneer at the Shadows in the 21st century, but if you can look past the white-than-white image and the quaint walk they would famously perform together on stage, Hank Marvin, Bruce Welch and various members ably assisted one of rock’n’roll’s biggest ever stars for years, had a hand in making some of his biggest records, became huge stars in their own right, and released Apache, one of the greatest instrumentals of all time, which would go on to influence hip-hop artists decades later. And if it wasn’t for the Shadows, there would perhaps be no Merseybeat. And after lots of teasing, we’ve finally reached that era.

Written by: Hank Marvin & Bruce Welch

Producer: Norrie Paramor

Weeks at number 1: 1 (28 March-3 April) 

 

 

145. The Shadows – Dance On! (1963)

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After three weeks at number 1 with The Next Time/Bachelor Boy, Cliff Richard found himself usurped by his own backing band. The Shadows scored their fourth chart-topper in their own right with Dance On!, a track written by sisters-in-law Valerie and Elaine Murtagh and Ray Adams. This trio were better known to the public as pop vocal group the Avons. By this point, drummer Brian Bennett and bassist Brian ‘Licorice’ Locking were firmly established as the replacements for Tony Meehan and Jet Harris respectively. Bennett had been a regular performer on Jack Good’s TV show Oh Boy! before working with Marty Wilde and then Tommy Steele. Locking performed alongside Bennett in Wilde’s Wildcats, and it was Bennett who suggested him as a replacement for Harris. Bennett and Locking brought some reliability to the Shadows, but as far as their recorded output goes, it seems they lost two vital sparks in Meehan and Harris, who were more musically adventurous. And let’s face it, you’d never consider the Shadows the most ‘dangerous’ of bands to begin with.

Dance On! is simply not in the same league as Apache or Wonderful Land, or even Kon-Tiki. It’s only two minutes long, but is so boring it feels longer. As a piece of incidental music in a 60s rock’n’roll film, it would be serviceable enough, but as a number 1 single? I can only imagine that many of Cliff’s fans would buy Shadows singles after snapping up those of their hero out of a sense of loyalty. It’s missing a killer guitar line from Hank Marvin, really. If it wasn’t ironic enough that the Shadows replaced themselves (in part) at number 1, only a week later they found themselves overtaken by their two former member, who had released a superior instrumental. Singer Kathy Kirby later released a vocal version of Dance On!, which reached number 11 in September.

As the first wintry month of 1963 drew to a close, 29 January saw President of France Charles de Gaulle veto the UK’s entry into the European Economic Community, along with Denmark, Norway and Ireland. De Gaulle was concerned that the membership of the UK would see US influence creep in.

Written by: Valerie Murtagh, Elaine Murtagh & Ray Adams

Producer: Norrie Paramor

Weeks at number 1: 1 (24-30 January)

Births

Wham! singer Andrew Ridgeley – 26 January
Journalist George Monbiot – 27 January 

141. The Tornados – Telstar (1962)

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It must have sounded to many like their record players or radios were malfunctioning at first. Telstar slowly fades in like no number 1 had ever done, to the sound of white noise, conjuring up images of the satellite the song was named after, before the clavioline begins and the tune gallops into life. Joe Meek’s imaginative masterpiece was a futuristic, optimistic anthem promising (like popular culture did so much at the time) a bright space-age future. But for its creator, it ultimately resulted in his life spiralling out of control, leading to murder and suicide.

Meek was obsessed with technology, so the launch of the Telstar communications satellite was a natural source of inspiration for him. He had become intrigued by the sound of the clavioline on the Dave Cortez hit The Happy Organ, and must have felt the instrument would help his new instrumental sound suitably space age. He gave the song to his group the Tornados, who formed in 1960, before providing backing for rock’n’roller Billy Fury. Like the Shadows with Cliff Richard, they also recorded instrumentals under their own name. In 1962 the group consisted of Clem Cattini on drums, who had already recorded several number 1s and would go on to perform more than anyone else, George Bellamy on rhythm guitar (father of Muse frontman Matt Bellamy, and very possibly an influence on that band), bassist Heinz Burt, lead guitarist Alan Caddy and Norman Hale on keyboards.  Meek produced Telstar in his usual (or unusual) way, recording the bulk of the track with the band in his flat. After laying down the main instruments, his associate Geoff Goddard, who had written Meek’s previous number 1, Johnny Remember Me added the clavioline that made the tune so unique, Meek was then in his element, adding the effects that were his signature. That sound of a spacecraft taking off at the beginning is in fact his toilet flushing, in reverse. Meek was achieving backwards effects four years before George Martin and the Beatles were experimenting along similar lines. Deciding that this new song needed something to help bring it to a climax, he hit upon the idea of adding a wordless vocal to mirror the clavioline, which Goddard also provided. The Tornados thought this was a bad idea, and you can’t blame them, as such a technique wasn’t well known at the time. Who’d heard of an instrumental with singing on it? At some point, the group also filmed a primitive video, with film clips of astronauts interspersed with the Tornados playing along. So much for Bohemian Rhapsody being the first music video.

Ever since Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space in 1961, the US became obsessed with the space age, and sure enough the UK followed suit. Telstar tapped into this feeling like no other song had even attempted at that point. Listening to this joyous sound, record buyers must have felt the future was now, and that it would only be a matter of time before they or their children would be living on the moon. 56 years later, it’s truly remarkable that such a song could come from the troubled mind of a schizophrenic in his independent home studio. The charts had come a long way since Al Martino’s Here in My Heart, nearly ten years previous.

Telstar was one of the biggest-selling singles of the year and became the first US number 1 to come from a UK group. Capitalising on its success, Meek produced a new version, with lyrics, entitled Magic Star, sung by Kenny Hollywood, but the lyrics took away some of the song’s mystery. Sadly, the original single was caught up in a legal battle when French composer Jean Ledrut accused Meek of plagiarising La Marche d’Austerlitz, a part of a score he had composed for the 1960 film Auschwitz. Meek claimed to have never seen the film (it hadn’t been released in the UK at this point), but the lawsuit prevented him from receiving any royalties for his biggest hit. Come 1967, this would have fatal repercussions.

In 1963, with Beatlemania on the rise (Meek had turned down the chance to work with the Fab Four), instrumental groups were losing ground, and the Tornados began to fall apart. This was in part due to Meek’s growing obsession with the bassist Heinz, who he had convinced he could make a solo star. Unfortunately, Heinz couldn’t sing, and the vocals on his solo debut were over-dubbed. Audiences weren’t keen, and poor Heinz would be attacked on stage, with beans thrown over him (Heinz Baked Beans, y’see). Eventually Heinz and Meek fell out, with Heinz leaving behind a shotgun… In 1965 Clem Cattini left the Tornados to go on to a safer and hugely successful career as a session drummer, and the band were left with no original members. In 66, the band made history again, releasing the first openly gay song, Do You Come Here Often? as a B-side The organ-led instrumental featured a casual conversation between two seemingly-homosexual men. The Tornados would do what countless 60s bands went on to do, namely reforming in a million different line-ups, and recorded various versions of Telstar. The original will always be the best. It was also one of Margaret Thatcher’s favourite songs, but don’t let that put you off.

The day after Telstar reached number 1, the public were served notice that soon the worlds of music and cinema would be changed dramatically, heralding the start of the 60s, two years after they’d actually began. 5 October saw the release of the first James Bomd film, Dr No, starring Sean Connery, and the Beatles first single in their own right, Love Me Do, was also released.

Written & produced by: Joe Meek

Weeks at number 1: 5 (4 October-7 November)

Births:

Presenter Caron Keating – 5 October 
Actress Nicola Bryant – 11 October 
Artist Naive John – 18 October 
Comedian Boothby Graffoe – 20 October – t
Presenter Nick Hancock – 25 October 
Actor Cary Elwes – 26 October

Deaths:

Activist Hugh Franklin – 21 October
Journalist Percy Cudlipp – 5 November 

135. B Bumble and the Stingers – Nut Rocker (1962)

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Wonderful Land by the Shadows stayed at number 1 for a very impressive eight weeks, and is considered one of the most memorable songs of the era. Although Nut Rocker only managed one week at the top, and the group behind it, B Bumble and the Stingers, weren’t heard of again, their instrumental has also proven to have some staying power over the years.

B Bumble and the Stingers were the house band of session musicians at Rendezvous Records in Los Angeles. The line-up included guitarist René Hall (who had come up with the name) and drummer Earl Palmer, and they had already had US hit with a rock’n’roll version of In the Mood (credited to the Ernie Fields Orchestra) and Bumble Boogie. In early 1962 Kim Fowley secured the copyright to record an arrangement of March from Tchaikovsky’s The Nutcracker Suite. Fowley was a producer and singer who had secured a US number 1 in 1960 with Alley Oop (credited to the Hollywood Argyles). He took the song to local pianist HB Barnum, who recorded it as Jack B Nimble and the Quicks (dear me) for the tiny label Del Rio. However, Rod Pierce of Rendezvous Records was convinced his label could do better, and he persuaded Fowley to produce a new recording. A session was swiftly arranged, but the pianist from Bumble Boogie, Ernie Freeman, was a no-show due to a particularly intense bout of partying the night before. Luckily, Hall recalled a pianist called Al Hazan that would be up to the task. Hazan was whisked into the Rendezvous office, which had been turned into a studio. He was still rehearsing with the others when it was decided to record the first take. Hazan was not happy with his performance, but Pierce said it was fine and the song was ready to go.

Rendezvous Records were clearly keen to get this track out there, and I’d side with Pierce on this. That first take of Nut Rocker sounds great to these ears, and captures the fun, sprightly spontaneity that the label were looking for. Going on the band name and song title, I came to this with some trepidation, expecting a self-consciously zany number that would grate. I was pleased to discover that it doesn’t outstay its welcome and doesn’t go overboard with wackiness. And of course, from that first bash of keys, I realised I already knew it – Nut Rocker has been used on film and TV countless times.

Eager to capitalise on their number 1 achievement in the UK (it only reached 23 in the US), Rendezvous put together a touring group. This was often the way in the 1950s and 60s – if session musicians had a hit, a different group would look after the live shows. The new group was led by RC Gamble, who became ‘Billy Bumble’. Hazan was also on board, so clearly he can’t have been too annoyed with the label after all. The group hit the UK in October to help promote their follow-up, Apple Knocker, which was based on Rossini’s William Tell Overture. However, despite this and several other singles, they never had any further success.

By mid-1963, Hall was busy working with Sam Cooke and Fowley was keen to move on. He went on to become a cult figure in the music industry. His 1965 song The Trip was one of the first to explicitly refer to LSD, and from there he worked with Frank Zappa, helped a nervous John Lennon on stage at the Plastic Ono Band’s debut gig, and remained a presence in music until his death in 2015. Gamble retired from music in 1965 and went on to become an economic professor. He died in 2008. Nut Rocker was rereleased several times, and a cover, known as Nutrocker, was released by prog rock giants Emerson, Lake and Palmer in 1972.

Written by: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky & Kim Fowley

ProducerKim Fowley

Weeks at number 1: 1 (17-23 May)

Births:

Scottish presenter Craig Ferguson – 17 May
Journalist Alan Johnston – 17 May

134. The Shadows – Wonderful Land (1962)

 

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1962 featured far fewer number 1s than the previous year due to several huge sellers. The first three number 1s alone took up close to half the year, and Wonderful Land by the Shadows was the longest-serving, notching up an impressive eight weeks at the peak of the charts. This hadn’t happened since Perry Como’s Magic Moments in 1958, and wouldn’t happen again until Sugar Sugar by the Archies in 1969. Surprisingly, it wasn’t the best-selling single of 1962 though – that honour went to Frank Ifield’s I Remember You.

Other than Apache, Wonderful Land has become the song most people identify with the classic Shadows sound. Both tracks came from the pen of singer-songwriter Jerry Lordan. Lordan clearly knew how to write a hit, but by his own admission was terrible at coming up with song titles. He played the unnamed instrumental to the group, and guitarist Hank Marvin wisely thought it conjured up images of America, suggesting Wonderful Land as its title. Lordan wasn’t keen, but in lieu of a better option, the name stuck.

Marvin was right, Wonderful Land does conjure up images of the epic, grandiose vastness of America. However, the Shadows were not only tipping the hat to America, they were also soundtracking the optimism of 1960s Britain. Although no group captured this feeling better than the Beatles, the Shadows were an important step in this direction. Despite referencing the US, the group never achieved any lasting success stateside.

As I said in my blog for The Young Ones, Norrie Paramor often throws everything he can at a tune, to its detriment, but here he lets the song breathe, and it’s effective, helping to make the song feel much more epic than its two-minute running time.  I can understand why Wonderful Land did so well in 1962, but do I enjoy it? It doesn’t compare to Apache in my opinion – it’s just a little too nice, and the more I hear of the Shadows work, the more I realise that Apache was perhaps an exception. Nonetheless, Wonderful Land is a rather charming souvenir of the pre-Beatles era, and certainly more memorable than Kon-Tiki.

Wonderful Land marked another period of transition within the band. Although Tony Meehan had left to become a session drummer when Kon-Tiki was at number 1, he was still in the line-up when Wonderful Land had been recorded. This time, it was bassist Jet Harris’s turn to leave. Whether he was sacked due to his drink problem or he left of his own accord depends on whose story you believed, but Harris later claimed his alcoholism came about due to separating from his wife, who subsequently had a relationship with Cliff Richard. If true, this certainly casts a shadow (sorry) on Cliff’s saintly image, and potentially rumours about his sexuality, but I digress. Harris had been an important member of the band – he came up with their name, and he is believed to have been the first musician in the UK to play an electric bass. Harris was quite surly, an image at odds with the friendliness the group usually projected, and his bass playing was occasionally aggressive. When he was replaced by Brian ‘Licorice’ Locking, the Shadows lost what little element of danger they might have had. And despite the controversy Harris’s drinking would cause, he went on to have one more number 1 – Diamonds, with Meehan, and written by Lordan once again.

In the news during these months… 2 April saw the introduction of panda crossings to the UK. Rather than make crossing the roads safer, the flashing lights managed to confuse drivers and pedestrians alike, and the system was replaced in 1967 by the X-ray, which evolved into the pelican crossing. On 4 April, James Hanratty was hanged at Bedford Prison after being found guilty of the A6 murders. Many believed him to be innocent, and witnesses had even claimed to have seen him in Rhyl at the time of the murders of Michael Gregsten and his mistress, Valerie Storie. Hanratty’s family and supporters still protest his innocence to this day. A fortnight later the government announced that from 1 July, the Commonwealth Immigrants Act would remove free immigration from citizens of member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. Prime Minister Harold Macmillan’s popularity was plummeting at that point, and on 27 April an opinion poll revealed less than half of all voters approved of him as leader.

Meanwhile, in the world of football, Ipswich Town won the Football League First Division title on 28 April, in their first season playing at such a level, and Tottenham Hotspur retained the FA Cup with a 3-1 win over Burnley at Wembley Stadium on 5 May.

And although it wasn’t a newsworthy event at the time, original bassist with the Beatles Stuart Sutcliffe died aged 21 of a brain aneurysm on 10 April. Never a confident musician, he had stayed on in Hamburg to study painting.

Written by: Jerry Lordan

Producer: Norrie Paramor

Weeks at number 1: 8 (22 March-16 May)

Births:

Rower Steve Redgrave – 23 March 
Author John O’Farrell – 27 March 
Presenter Phillip Schofield – 1 April 
Scottish actor John Hannah – 23 April 
Writer Polly Samson -29 April
Snooker player Jimmy White – 2 May 

Depeche Mode singer Dave Gahan – 9 May 
The Cult singer Ian Astbury – 14 May

Deaths:

Welsh politician Clement Davies – 23 March 
Original Beatles bassist Stuart Sutcliffe – 10 April 
Cricketer Ernest Tyldesley – 5 May 

126. The Shadows – Kon-Tiki (1961)

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Although Cliff Richard and the Shadows were still a firm fixture in the charts, and these were the years in which they couldn’t put a foot wrong, 1961 was a surprisingly quiet year for number 1s from either act. Together they released four singles, all of which reached the top five, and the Shadows had also had plenty of top ten success since their influential Apache in 1960. The first week of October saw the instrumental four-piece back at the top with a track by Michael Carr. Carr had co-written We’re Going to Hang Out the Washing on the Siegfried Line with Jimmy Kennedy in 1939, which became very popular during the early stages of World War Two. 21 years later he had written Man of Mystery for the Shadows, which had reached number five in December 1960.

This latest instrumental, Kon-Tiki, was named after the famous hand-built raft used by Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl in 1947 to cross the Pacific Ocean from South America to the Tuamotu Islands. A 1950 documentary film about Heyerdahl’s dangerous mission, also named Kon-Tiki, won an Oscar for Best Documentary Feature the following year.

You would think a song named after such an adventure would be full of tension and danger, but Kon-Tiki is no Apache. It’s a fast-paced showcase for Hank Marvin’s surf guitar sound, but there aren’t many hooks to speak of and it’s too polite to leave much of an impact.

During Kon-Tiki‘s brief stint at number 1, drummer Tony Meehan left the group to become a session drummer and arranger for eccentric genius Joe Meek, who had produced John Leyton’s Johnny Remember Me. He was replaced by Brian Bennett, who stayed with the Shadows for the rest of their active years.

In the news in October 1961… the entire island of Tristan da Cunha was evacuated to Surrey when a volcano erupted. There they remained until 1963, bizarrely.

Written by: Michael Carr

Producer: Norrie Paramor

Weeks at number 1: 1 (5-11 October)

Births:

Formula 1 driver Julian Bailey – 9 October 
Spandau Ballet bassist Martin Kemp – 10 October
Children’s TV presenter Neil Buchanan – 11 October 

117. Floyd Cramer – On the Rebound (1961)

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Number 1 for a week in May, On the Rebound saw a much-demanded session musician step out into the spotlight and become a star in his own right. Pianist Floyd Cramer was one of the key architects of the ‘Nashville sound’, a sophisticated version of country music that had originated in the mid-1950s.

Cramer had been born in Shreveport, Louisiana in October 1933. He grew up in the small town of Huttig, Arkansas, where he taught himself to play the piano after his parents bought him one for his fifth birthday. After graduating, he returned to Louisiana and found work at radio station KWKH, where he began backing honky tonk stars and even toured with Hank Williams. Despite making his name as a session musician, he actually recorded his first solo single, Dancin’ Diane, in 1953. Two years later, he found himself touring with an up-and-coming singer named Elvis Presley. 1955 proved an important year for Cramer, as he finally moved to Nashville at the instigation of one of the Nashville sound’s figureheads, songwriter and producer Chet Atkins. Over the next few years, Cramer, along with Atkins, Owen Bradley, Harold Bradley, Fred Carter and the Jordanaires, worked with some of American music’s most influential stars, including UK number 1 artists Elvis, Roy Orbison and the Everly Brothers.

Key to Cramer’s success was the ‘slip note’ style of playing he developed, in which he would often hit out-of-key notes before sliding into the right one, which created a kind of slurring sound that fitted perfectly with the country music he was working on. Cramer first used ‘slip note’ at a session for Hank Locklin’s Please Help Me, I’m Falling, when Atkins asked Cramer to copy Don Robertson’s playing on the demo. However, it was Cramer that ran with this style and made it his own. In 1960 he had a hit with the memorable instrumental Last Date, which peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100. Ironically, he was kept from the top spot by Presley’s Are You Lonesome Tonight?, on which he had also played. Last Date was later covered by REM, among others. A year later, the self-penned title track of his new album On the Rebound, also narrowly missed out on topping the US charts, but it did the business in the UK.

I was surprised just how much I enjoyed this track. I was half expecting something along the lines of Russ Conway’s number 1s, Side Saddle and Roulette, but On the Rebound really is a cut above. With instrumentals, you either need a really good central riff, or enough elements to keep the listener interested, and this track does both. It’s laden with hooks, punchy, and sounds pretty modern, thanks to Atkins’ production, with Cramer’s skills impressing over stirring string stabs. There’s been a lot of disappointing number 1s so far in 1961. This is one of the better ones.

Floyd Cramer continued to release his own work alongside session performances, often covering the hits of the time. From 1965 to 1974 he annually recorded an album of the year’s hits, titled The Class of… As a fan of the Monkees, I wouldn’t mind hearing Floyd Cramer Plays the Monkees, from 1967, or maybe Floyd Cramer and the Keyboard Kick Band from ten years later, in which Cramer played eight different keyboards. His final chart hit was his own version of the theme to US soap opera Dallas in 1980. Cramer died of lung cancer on New Year’s Eve 1997, aged 64.

Written by: Floyd Cramer

Producer: Chet Atkins

Weeks at number 1: 1 (18-24 May)