149. The Shadows – Foot Tapper (1963)

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The movie Summer Holiday had been out for months, but its popularity was still very high in March 1963, leading to an unusual chart occurrence. For the second time in three months, Cliff Richard found himself knocked from the top of the charts by his backing band, the Shadows. Summer Holiday had been at number 1 for a fortnight, but Foot Tapper replaced it for a week, only to be overtaken by the film’s title track once more.

Foot Tapper was also from the film’s soundtrack, and Bruce Welch had co-written both. The Shadows final number 1 was also written by its most famous member, bespectacled guitarist Hank Marvin. It’s another uptempo piece of incidental music, in a similar vein to their previous bestseller, Dance On!.

It’s a bit better than Dance On!, but only a bit. Once more, you can imagine it working as incidental music for a film score, after all, that’s what it was. But Foot Tapper jangles along for just over two minutes and leaves little impression – it lives up to its name and that’s it. The best bit is the drum work from Brian Bennett, but compare it to Jet Harris and Tony Meehan’s Diamonds and Foot Tapper just doesn’t stand up. The Shadows had been an inspiration to many aspiring musicians, many of which would ultimately outdo and replace them, but their own well was starting to look very dry, and after backing Cliff Richard on seven number 1s, and achieving five in their own right, the group never topped the charts again.

Bassist Brian Locking left the group that October to concentrate on being a Jehovah’s Witness and was replaced with John Rostill. The hits began to dry up as Beatlemania conquered all in its path, and they starred alongside Cliff in another film, Finders Keepers. This 1966 movie features the bizarre premise of the boys arriving in a Spanish town to perform, only to find that the locals have fled in panic because a small bomb has landed nearby. So Cliff and the Shadows decide to find the bomb and get things back to normal. What a lovely set of lads. The Rolling Stones wouldn’t have done that, would they?

The 1970s began with the group featuring as regular guests on Cliff’s variety show for the BBC, It’s Cliff Richard!. Rostill left the group and sadly committed suicide in 1973, prompting yet another line-up change, and it wouldn’t be the last. The group took part in the 1975 Eurovision Song Contest, coming in second place with Let Me Be the One. Onetime guitarist John Farrar, who came and went in the mid-70s, went on to write You’re the One That I Want for John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John, one of the biggest-selling number 1s of all-time. The 80s saw keyboard thrown into the mix but like so many bands from their era, an attempt at sounding contemporary just made them look more old-fashioned. The band reunited with Cliff for live shows several times, and Hank Marvin helped on his collaboration with the Young Ones on a remake of their first number 1, Living Doll in 1986, which was the first Comic Relief single. The band’s most famous rhythm section, Jet Harris and Tony Meehan, joined them on stage in 1989 for a special performance of Move It at Cliff’s The Event show. In 2004 they announced a farewell tour, and each of the band’s line-up at the time received an OBE, but Hank Marvin gave it back (fair play). Despite the tour, they have continued to perform and record, with Singing the Blues, their last collaboration with Cliff, reaching the top 40 in 2009.

It may be easy to sneer at the Shadows in the 21st century, but if you can look past the white-than-white image and the quaint walk they would famously perform together on stage, Hank Marvin, Bruce Welch and various members ably assisted one of rock’n’roll’s biggest ever stars for years, had a hand in making some of his biggest records, became huge stars in their own right, and released Apache, one of the greatest instrumentals of all time, which would go on to influence hip-hop artists decades later. And if it wasn’t for the Shadows, there would perhaps be no Merseybeat. And after lots of teasing, we’ve finally reached that era.

Written by: Hank Marvin & Bruce Welch

Producer: Norrie Paramor

Weeks at number 1: 1 (28 March-3 April) 

 

 

148. Cliff Richard and the Shadows – Summer Holiday (1963)

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The Beatles came one step closer to conquering the world on 22 March when they released their debut album, Please Please Me. Their label, Parlophone Records, were keen to capitalise on the success of Love Me Do, and their follow-up single that shared the album’s title. To this day, it angers many Beatles fans that the single Please Please Me is not considered an official number 1. That’s a story for another time, however…

As one era was beginning, another was coming to an end. Summer Holiday marked the last time Cliff would make it to number 1 with the Shadows. He would continue to work with them occasionally, and obviously, further solo number 1s were to come, but the film, album and song sharing this name were the high watermark of Cliff’s career, and like Elvis, from here on in he was no longer guaranteed a number 1. He had to work for it.

Cliff’s latest film was a massive money-spinner at the box office, eventually becoming the biggest of the year. The Next Time/Bachelor Boy were both from the movie, and had been the first number 1 of 1963. The title track, written by rhythm guitarist Bruce Welch and drummer Brian Bennett, was so catchy, it must have been a shoe-in to be their next single, and two months after the film’s release, it rocketed to the top.

I’ve not been shy of criticising Cliff Richard in my blogs, because I feel he’s let me down somewhat. I was hoping some of these early chart-toppers would be similar to Move It, but too many have been bland, generic and safe. But it’s impossible to dislike Summer Holiday, even after all these years of exposure to it, on countless TV shows and adverts. You can find it amusing, sure, but in an affectionate way. How can you tire of a song that looks ahead to getting away from all your troubles, even if it is just ‘for a week or two’? The lack of edge to Cliff, Hank and co works in their favour on this track, and with its release coming straight off the back of one of the longest winters this country has ever seen, there’s no wonder the public took it to so much. It’ll probably always be considered Cliff’s best song, and is now a part of British culture, subject to countless spoofs. My first exposure to it came via Kevin the Gerbil in 1984. Kevin was the companion of 80s puppet superstar Roland Rat, and this version was one of my first ever pieces of vinyl. Summer Holiday was also interpolated into the terrible but highly amusing Holiday Rap by Dutch duo MC Miker G & DJ Sven in 1986.

After a fortnight at the top, Cliff found himself in the unlikely situation of being knocked off the top by his backing band, for the second time in a few months. More on that in the next blog.

The charts weren’t the only place in which change was coming. On 27 March, Dr Richard Beeching, the Chairman of British Railways, issued a report on drastic cuts to the rail network. This infamous report predicted the closure of over 2000 railway stations, plus the scrapping of 8000 coaches and the loss of 68,000 jobs. This was not the age of the train.

Written by: Bruce Welch & Brian Bennett

Producer: Norrie Paramor

Weeks at number 1: 3 (14-27 March, 4-10 April)

Births:

Actor Jerome Flynn – 16 March
Actor David Thewlis – 20 March
DJ Andrew Weatherall – 6 April
Musician Julian Lennon – 8 April 

Deaths:

Economist William Beveridge – 16 March 

110. Cliff Richard and the Shadows – I Love You (1960)

New Year’s Eve 1960 was the final day that the farthing, a coin that had been in use since the 13th century, could be used as legal tender. It was also the day that conscription ended in the UK. The times, they were a-changing.

Unfortunately, they weren’t changing quickly enough in the music world. 1960 had proven to be a rather staid year as far as number 1s went, with only a few highlights (Cathy’s Clown, Shakin’ All Over, Apache and Only the Lonely (Know How I Feel)). And so it seems appropriate that the Christmas number 1 that year was also pretty dull. Elvis Presley’s It’s Now or Never had been unstoppable for two months, but the UK’s other biggest-selling artist of the era managed to topple it during Christmas week. Not for the last time, Cliff Richard was the festive chart-topper, but this wasn’t considered such an honour back then.

In my review of Every Christmas Number 1, I decided Cliff Richard and the Shadows’ I Love You was the worst Christmas best-seller of the 1960s, describing it as ‘generic’, ‘tepid’ and ‘very forgettable’. Since then I’ve discovered that the singer’s father fell ill during I Love You‘s fortnight at the top, and died a few months later. This track was his favourite number 1 by his son, so I feel a bit guilty. Not enough to change my opinion, though. If you’re going to call a song I Love You, you should be pulling out al the stops to make it interesting, in my opinion. Like their previous number 1, Please Don’t Tease, the writer is rhythm guitarist Bruce Welch, and once again, it’s a very bland and polite track, but it got the job done, I guess. There were better number 1s to come for Cliff and the Shadows, but not for a while.

The first week of 1961 saw the debut of a classic television series. The Avengers premiered on ITV on 7 January. The original episodes focused on Dr David Keel, played by Ian Hendry, with John Steed (Patrick Macnee) growing in popularity throughout the series, before eventually becoming the central character. Two days later, British authorities announced a large Soviet spy ring had been uncovered in London.

Written by: Bruce Welch

Producer: Norrie Paramor

Weeks at number 1: 2 (29 December 1960-11 January 1961)

Births:

Footballer Steve Bruce – 31 December
Actor Mark Wingett – 1 January 

106. The Shadows – Apache (1960)

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From 25 August to 11 September 1960, Great Britain and Northern Ireland competed in the Olympics, held in Rome. It wasn’t a great performance, with only two gold medals, six silver and 12 bronze brought home. On the same day, Cliff Richard and the Shadows were deposed from the top of the charts by… the Shadows (with a cameo from Cliff). This unusual turn of events came about because the Shadows had a recording contract separate to their one as a backing band for the UK’s most popular artist at the time. Their instrumental, Apache, is of course one of the most memorable and evocative pre-Beatles UK singles, and catapulted them to super-stardom, making Hank Marvin, Bruce Welch, Jet Harris and Tony Meeham the first backing band to step out of the shadows (sorry) and become as popular as their frontman.

As previously stated in my blogs for Living Doll and Travellin’ Light, the Shadows were originally known as the Drifters, and none of the original line-up remained by 1960. When Cliff recorded his first hit, the influential Move It, the band consisted of founder Ken Pavey, Terry Smart, Norman Mitham and Ian Samwell. Samwell had written Move It, but only he and Smart were allowed to play on the recording, and that had taken some persuasion. By the time of the recording of Living Doll, the famous line-up was in place. Hank Marvin, the guitar wizard and most well-known band member, had been hired partly due to his Buddy Holly-style spectacles. Originally, Tony Sheridan, who later recorded My Bonnie with the Beatles, had been in the frame. Jet Harris had christened the group the Shadows just before their second number 1,  Travellin’ Light. The four-piece had released a few of their own singles, but none made it to the charts, until they struck gold with Apache.

Singer-songwriter Jerry Lordan’s tune I’ve Waited So Long had been a hit for Anthony Newley in 1959, and his biggest solo hit, Who Could Be Bluer?, was produced by George Martin, and performing well when Lordan was supporting the Shadows early in 1960. He had been watching the 1954 western Apache, starring Burt Lancaster, and was inspired to write an instrumental on his ukelele. He presented the tune to the Shadows on the tour bus. The influential guitarist Burt Weedon had recorded a version, yet to be released, but Lordan wasn’t a fan, and figured the Shadows could make a better job of it. He wasn’t wrong.

Apache begins with foreboding beats, achieved by none other than Cliff himself, banging away on a Chinese drum. This was the first time Cliff had sounded dangerous since Move It. And it certainly makes for a more effective sound than the impressions of Indians that feature on Johnny Preston’s Running Bear. That famous, hazy surf guitar sound that then enters and really makes Apache came about when cockney singer Joe Brown gave away his echo chamber to Hank Marvin, who played around with it and the tremolo arm of his Fender Stratocaster. You can laugh at how nice and polite the Shadows used to look now, with their funny little choreographed walk and beaming faces, but Apache is a hell of a performance, sounding dangerous, modern, and very cool, as well as achieving what Lordan wanted from the track  – namely something that brought to mind the drama, courage and savagery of the Indians in Burt Lancaster’s film. Although the spotlight falls on Marvin, this is a group performance, and the other three really shine too.

Bizarrely, Norrie Paramor, who usually had a great ear for a hit and had produced plenty of chart-toppers, wasn’t that keen at first, and neither were their record label. Paramor preferred The Quatermasster’s Stores, but admitted at 40 he was perhaps growing out-of-touch, and let his teenage daughter decide. She picked ‘the Indian one’, and Apache slowly creeped to number 1 for five weeks, inspiring countless guitarists. Cliff was gracious and found the idea of being usurped by his own band amusing, and no bad blood resulted.

Of course, Apache went further than influencing rock’n’roll. Michael Viner’s Incredible Bongo Band, a project started by MGM executive Viner, released the album Bongo Rock in 1973. The second track was a fantastic cover of Apache, featuring a now legendary drum break by Jim Gordon, formerly of Derek and the Dimons. That breakbeat became as ubiquitous to hip-hop as James Brown’s Funky Drummer, appearing in early DJ sets by pioneers such as Afrika Bambaataa and Grandmaster Flash. You’ll recognise it from the Sugarhill Gang’s fun version of Apache, from Grandmaster Flash’s The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (both 1981), and the West Street Mob’s Break Dance (Electric Boogie) (1983), and they’re just the obvious ones. Why is Gordon not recognised for this contribution to modern music? Perhaps because in 1983, he murdered his mother during a psychotic episode. In fact, yes, I’m certain that’s why.

On 15 September, while Apache was still chopping down all competition, an evil scourge began stalking the streets of London, and life for motorists was never the same again. The dreaded traffic wardens were here, for good.

Written by: Jerry Lordan

Producer: Norrie Paramor

Weeks at number 1: 5 (25 August-28 September)

Births:

Actor Hugh Grant – 9 September
Actor Colin Firth – 10 September
Actor Danny John-Jules – 16 September
Race car driver Damon Hill – 17 September 

Deaths:

Actress Amy Veness – 22 September
Suffragette Sylvia Pankhurst – 27 September 

104. Cliff Richard and the Shadows – Please Don’t Tease (1960)

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30 July 1960: At the third Beaulieu Jazz Festival in Hampshire, riots break out between the teenage progressive jazz fans and the older trad jazz brigade. Following a stage invasion, 39 people were injured and a building was set on fire, causing the BBC to pull its coverage early.

So it would seem that teenage rebellion was to be found in the jazz world in 1960, because it’s hard to imagine anyone getting fired up to the sound of most of the number 1s of that year so far, and Cliff Richard and the Shadows’ Please Don’t Tease is certainly no exception. Cliff’s fans are to blame for his third chart-topper. In an unusual gimmick for the time, Columbia Records assembled a panel of youngsters to listen to a batch of unreleased tracks from Cliff and co, and Please Don’t Tease was the winner, with Nine Times Out of Ten the runner-up (it became the subsequent single, but didn’t make it to number 1). The fans picked well, as their hero’s last two singles only made it to number 2. Please Don’t Tease had been written by Shadows rhythm guitarist Bruce Welch and Pete Chester, son of comedian Charlie Chester. Hank Marvin and Welch had been in Chester’s band, the Five Chesternuts (groan) before joining Cliff Richard and the Drifters (as they were called originally).

It’s hard to write about this single, as it’s so flimsy it’s impossible to remember. It’s like a castrated version of Move It, that tries to sound like Elvis or Buddy Holly, but is so wet and polite, it’s laughable. Cliff’s getting mighty cross that his lady friend is messing him around. He’s sick to death of her playing it ‘oh so doggone cool’, and he’s so annoyed, ooh, he’s going to… ask her to please kindly refrain from teasing him, because it’s really upsetting him. Now I prefer a gentlemanly Cliff to the idea of him locking his girl up in a trunk, but come on Cliff, show some balls, please! And while you’re at it, please don’t ever attempt to sing the word ‘hurricane’ in an American accent again. Ah well, at least, like most 1960 songs, it doesn’t outstay its welcome. Oh wait, it does. For some reason, Please Don’t Tease goes on for over three minutes. On the plus side, Marvin’s guitar solo is pretty good.

After a week at number 1, Johnny Kidd & the Pirates’ rightly toppled Cliff with the astounding Shakin’ All Over, but somehow Please Don’t Tease returned for a further fortnight at the top. What an injustice. During its second stint, Cyrpus gained independence from the UK, as of 16 August, and a day later, a five-piece performing in Hamburg, West Germany played their first concert under a new name. Would the Beatles stick with it? Only time would tell. And on 22 August, the first performance of the satirical review Beyond the Fringe took place in Edinburgh. Featuring Alan Bennett, Peter Cook, Jonathan Miller and Dudley Moore, the show received a lukewarm response until it moved to London.

Written by: Bruce Welch & Pete Chester

Producer: Norrie Paramor

Weeks at number 1: 3 (28 July-3 August, 11-24 August) 

Births:

Darts player Phil Taylor – 13 August
Singer Sarah Brightman – 14 August 

88. Cliff Richard and the Drifters – Living Doll (1959)

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‘Look out! Cliff!’ It’s hard to believe now, but when Sir Cliff Richard’s first single Move It narrowly missed out on number 1 to Connie Francis’s Carolina Moon/Stupid Cupid in 1958, he was considered edgy, and the closest we had to our own Elvis Presley. Tommy Steele’s impersonation of ‘the King’ on Singing the Blues was too similar, and he soon began concentrating on his film career. Unlike Elvis, Cliff was and is mainly a British phenomenon, and his cool image soon disappeared, and was forever replaced by that of the wholesome Christian entertainer. Not that it damaged his career of course. Cliff is the third biggest-selling artist in the history of the UK singles chart, behind The Beatles and Elvis, selling over 21 million in this country alone. This is the first of many staggering statistics – 67 UK top ten singles, 14 of which were number 1. Along with Elvis, he is the only act to make the chart in the first six decades, and is the only singer to have had number 1s from the 1950s through to the 90s. This is the story of Living Doll, his first.

Harry Rodger Webb had been born in Lucknow, British India on 14 October 1940. The Webbs had a modest life there, but following Indian Independence in 1948 they moved into a smaller semi-detached house in Carshalton, south London. The teenage Webb became keenly interested in skiffle, like so many future stars, and his father bought him a guitar for his 16th birthday. In 1957 he formed the Quintones, before becoming the singer in the Dick Teague Skiffle Group, and then the Drifters. This was, of course, not the US soul group of the same name. entrepreneur Harry Greatorex became their manager, and suggested Webb needed a name change if they were to get anywhere. He came up with ‘Cliff’– because it sounded like ‘rock’, and band member Ian Samwell thought Richard would make a great surname as a tribute to Little Richard. Together with drummer Terry Smart and guitarist Norman Mitham, they were now Cliff Richard and the Drifters, and Move It, penned by Samwell, stormed the charts. Cliff was a sensation, with his good looks, scowl and rock’n’roll attitude. John Lennon even called it the first British rock record.

Further singles followed, coming and going from the top ten. By the time of Richard’s film debut, in the film Serious Charge (1959), the line-up of the Drifters had become Hank Marvin and Bruce Welch on guitars, bassist Jet Harris and Tony Meeham on drums. Lionel Bart had been approached to write songs for the film. Bart had already won awards for his pop songs, and had helped discover Tommy Steele, before moving into musicals soon after. He was browsing a newspaper when he came across an advert for a child’s doll. Ten minutes later he had written the controversial lyric for Living Doll. Originally planned as a rock’n’roll song (as featured in the film), Richard was not a fan, and was horrified to hear it was going to be their next single. Producer Norrie Paramor told him they could record it any way they wanted as long as it got done. It was Welch that came up with the genius idea of slowing down the tempo and making it a country song. Previously, the Drifters had only accompanied Cliff in live performances. This was their recording debut.

Welch’s change of pace proved to be a masterstroke, and completely made the song, It’s still an ear worm now, as I can’t get it out of my head after relistening. The problem with Living Doll, of course, is Bart’s lyrics. They really haven’t aged well, and it’s hard to match Christian crusader Cliff Richard with words that objectify women so badly. The easy-going charm of the tune cannot disguise the sinister, misogynistic lyrics that Cliff is crooning (and his crooning is really effective here – Living Doll is a great production by Paramor). The words are just plain odd at times, too. For instance, if they are taken literally, then Cliff is chuffed that, although his girl looks like a doll, her hair is in fact real, and what’s more, he’ll let you have a feel if you like. Even worse, Cliff seems to get jealous very easily, and is prepared to lock her in a trunk to keep her away from other men. I wonder if Cliff ever wonders what God thinks of him singing this? Of course, in 1959, nobody gave a toss about comparing women to dolls, and Living Doll became the biggest-selling song of the year. It also marked the beginning of the end of ‘Edgy Cliff’, with his sound becoming more family-oriented. It was 27 years later that Cliff took a decidedly irreverent version of the same song back to the top, and that’s the version I first heard, but we’ll hear about that when we get to 1986.

During Living Doll‘s six-week period at the top, Barclays made history as the first bank to install one of those new-fangled computers (4 August), and on 26 August, the first Mini, an icon of the following decade, went on sale.

Written by: Lionel Bart

Producer: Norrie Paramor

Weeks at number 1: 6 (31 July-10 September) *BEST-SELLING SINGLE OF THE YEAR*

Births:

Journalist Kim Newman – 31 July
Del Leppard singer Joe Elliott – 1 August
Dead or Alive singer Pete Burns – 5 August 

Deaths:

Poet Edgar Guest – 5 August
Sculptor Jacob Epstein – 19 August
Actress Kay Kendall – 6 September